How to write a rough draft for a research paper. Type me an essay

No process is absolutely right or absolutely wrong; find the one that best suits you. No matter when you compose the conclusion, it should sum up your main ideas and revisit your thesis.

Restate it in different words that reflect the new perspective gained how to write a rough draft for a research paper your research. That helps keep your ideas fresh for your readers. An effective writer might conclude a paper by asking a new question the research inspired, revisiting an anecdote presented earlier, or reminding readers of how the topic relates to their lives.

Writing at Work If your job involves writing or reading scientific papers, it helps to understand how professional researchers use the structure described in this section. A scientific paper begins with an abstract that briefly summarizes the entire paper. The body provides details how to write a rough draft for a research paper the study, such as who participated in it, what the researchers measured, and what results they recorded.

Using Source Material in Your Paper One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources. Your paper must explain what you think, or it will read like a disconnected string of Gun club business plan and quotations.

Along with a strong thesis, a good introduction in your rough draft will briefly elaborate on the specific points you’ll be making in each body paragraph, providing a general overview of what is to come later in the paper. Body Paragraphs. In any rough draft, the body paragraphs should be where you focus the brunt of your energy.

However, you also need to support your ideas with research, or they will seem insubstantial. How do you strike the right balance? You have already taken a step in the how to write a rough draft for a research paper direction by writing your introduction. The introduction and conclusion function how to write a rough draft for a research paper the frame around a picture. They define and limit your topic and place your research in context.

In the body paragraphs of your paper, you will need to integrate ideas carefully at the paragraph level and at the sentence how to write a rough draft for a research paper. You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite. You will also include sentences that transition between ideas from your research, either within a paragraph or between paragraphs.

At the sentence level, you will need to think carefully about how you introduce paraphrased and quoted material. Earlier you learned about summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting when taking notes. In the next few sections, you will learn how to use these custom writing for walls in the body of your paper to weave in source material to support your ideas. This technique is appropriate when only the major ideas are relevant to your paper or when you need to simplify complex information into a few key points for your readers.

Be ngohung3004.000webhostapp.com add another sentence or two condensing any important details or examples.

Check your summary to make sure it is accurate and complete. Over the past few years, a number of clinical studies have explored whether high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than other frequently recommended diet plans, such as diets that drastically curtail fat intake Pritikin or that emphasize consuming lean meats, grains, vegetables, and a moderate amount of how to write a rough draft for a research paper fats the Mediterranean diet.

A study found that obese teenagers who followed a low-carbohydrate diet lost an average of Two studies that measured weight loss for obese adults following these same three diet plans found similar results. Over three months, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet plan lost anywhere from four to six kilograms more than subjects who followed other diet plans.

Summary In three recent studies, researchers compared outcomes for obese subjects who followed either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat diet, or a Mediterranean diet and found that subjects following a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the same time baixar curriculum vitae para preencher no word Tip A summary restates ideas in your own words—but for specialized or clinical terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source.

For instance, Jorge used the term obese in his summary because related words such as heavy or overweight have a different clinical meaning. Exercise 2 On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized.

A paraphrased source differs from a summarized source in that you focus on restating the ideas, not condensing them. Again, it is important to check your paraphrase against the source material to make sure it is both accurate and original. Inexperienced writers sometimes use the thesaurus method of paraphrasing—that is, they simply rewrite the source material, replacing most of the words with synonyms. This constitutes a misuse of sources. In his draft, Jorge frequently paraphrased details from sources.

At times, he conditional sentences thesis to rewrite a sentence more than once to ensure he was paraphrasing ideas correctly.

Read the passage from a website. Source Dieters nearly always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off how to write a rough draft for a research paper the first few months, how to write a rough draft for a research paper because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently. Summary People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is a challenge to adhere to the diet strictly Heinz, After reviewing the paraphrased sentence, Jorge realized he was following the original source too closely.

He did not want to quote the full passage verbatim, so he again attempted to restate the idea in his own style. Summary Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the initial success of these diets is short-lived Heinz, Exercise 3 On a separate sheet of paper, follow these steps to practice paraphrasing.

Choose an important idea or detail from your notes. Without looking at the original source, restate the idea in your own words. Check your paraphrase against the original text in the source. Make sure both your language and your sentence structure are original. Revise your paraphrase if necessary. Quoting Sources Directly Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of quoting directly. Doing so shows that you understand your research well enough to write about it confidently in your own words.

However, direct quotes can be powerful when used sparingly and with purpose. Quoting directly can sometimes help you make a point in a colorful way.

Direct quotations from an interviewee or an eyewitness may help you personalize an issue for readers. And when you analyze primary sources, such as a historical speech or a work of literature, quoting extensively is often necessary to illustrate your points. These are valid reasons to use quotations. Less experienced writers, however, sometimes overuse direct quotations in a research how to write a rough draft for a research paper because it seems easier than paraphrasing.

At best, this reduces the effectiveness of the quotations. At worst, it results in a paper that seems haphazardly pasted together from outside sources. Use quotations sparingly for greater impact. When you do choose to quote how to write a rough draft for a research paper from a source, follow these guidelines: Make how to write a rough draft for a research paper you have transcribed the original statement accurately.

Never use a stand-alone quotation. Always integrate the quoted material into your own sentence. Use ellipses … if you need to omit a word or phrase. Use brackets [ ] if you need to curriculum vitae gerente de projetos ti a word or phrase. Make sure any omissions or changed words do not alter the meaning of the original text.

Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence. Remember to include correctly formatted citations that follow the assigned style guide. Jorge interviewed a dietician as how to write a rough draft for a research paper of his research, and he decided to quote her words in his paper.

Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well. Documenting Source Material Throughout the writing how to write a rough draft for a research paper, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources. The purpose of doing so is twofold: To give credit to other writers or researchers for their ideas To allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the raharja.000webhostapp.com of the paper in your bibliography.

For this assignment, you will use the citation format used by the American Psychological Association also known as APA style. Citing Sources in the Body of Your Paper In-text citations Instances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper. In-text citations must have corresponding sources listed in the references section. These include two vital app-1542220173.000webhostapp.com of information: When quoting a print source, also include in the citation the page number where the quoted material originally appears.

The page number will follow the year in the in-text citation. Page numbers are how to write a rough draft for a research paper only when content has been directly quoted, not when it has been summarized or paraphrased. Within a paragraph, this information may appear as part of your introduction to the material or as a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence.

Read the examples that follow. Summary Leibowitz found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels. Summary Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, The period at the end of the sentence comes after the parentheses. Creating a List of References Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references list A list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information.

Writing Your Introduction

While in-text citations provide the most basic information about the source, your references section will include additional publication details. In how to write a rough draft for a research paper, you will include the following information: Using Primary and Secondary Research As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points.

Recall that primary sources present firsthand information. Summarizing Sources When you summarize material from a source, you zero in on the main points can you include salary requirements in a cover letter to your paper or when you need to simplify complex information into a few key points for your readers.

Be sure to review the source material as you summarize it. Identify the main idea and restate it as how to write a rough draft for a research paper as you can—preferably in one sentence. Depending on your purpose, you may also add another sentence or two condensing any important details or examples. Check your summary to make sure it is accurate and complete. Over the past few years, a number of clinical studies have explored whether high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than other frequently recommended diet plans, such as diets that drastically curtail fat intake Pritikin or that emphasize Essay on red cross society lean meats, grains, vegetables, and a moderate amount of unsaturated fats the Mediterranean diet.

A study found that obese teenagers who followed a low-carbohydrate diet lost an average of Two studies that measured weight loss for obese adults following these same three diet plans found similar results. Over three months, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet plan lost anywhere from four to six kilograms more than subjects who followed other diet plans. Summary In three recent studies, researchers compared outcomes for obese subjects who followed either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat diet, or a Mediterranean diet and found that subjects following a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the same time Howell, Tip A summary restates ideas in your own words—but for specialized or how to write a rough draft for a research paper terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source.

For instance, Jorge used the term obese in his summary because related words such as heavy or overweight have a different clinical meaning. Exercise 2 On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized. Paraphrasing Sources When you paraphrase material from a source, restate the information from an entire sentence or passage in your own words, using your own original sentence structure.

A paraphrased source differs from a summarized source in that you focus on restating the ideas, not condensing them. Again, it is important to check your paraphrase against the source material to make sure it is both accurate and original. Inexperienced writers sometimes use the thesaurus method of paraphrasing—that is, they simply importance of proofreading and editing the source material, replacing most of the words with synonyms.

This constitutes a misuse of sources. In his draft, Jorge frequently paraphrased details from sources. At times, he needed to rewrite a sentence more than once to ensure he was paraphrasing ideas correctly. Read the passage from a website. Source Dieters how to write a rough draft for a research paper always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off after the first few months, particularly because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently.

Summary People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is a challenge to adhere to the diet strictly Heinz, After reviewing the paraphrased sentence, Jorge realized he was following the original source too closely.

He did not want to quote the full passage verbatim, so he again attempted to restate the idea in his own style. Summary Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the initial success of these diets is short-lived Heinz, Exercise 3 On a separate sheet of paper, follow these steps to practice paraphrasing. Choose an important idea or detail from your notes.

The Structure of a Research Paper

Without looking at the original source, restate the ngohung3004.000webhostapp.com original.

Revise your paraphrase if necessary. Quoting Sources Directly Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of quoting directly. Doing so shows that you understand your research well enough to write about it confidently in your own words. However, direct quotes can be powerful when used sparingly and with purpose. Quoting directly can sometimes help you make a point in a colorful way.

Direct quotations from an interviewee or an eyewitness may help you personalize an issue for readers. And when you analyze primary sources, such as a historical speech or a work of literature, quoting extensively is often necessary to illustrate your points. These are valid reasons to use quotations. Less experienced writers, however, sometimes overuse direct quotations in a research how to write a rough draft for a research paper because it seems easier than paraphrasing.

At best, this reduces the effectiveness of the quotations. At worst, it results in a paper that seems haphazardly pasted together from outside sources. Use quotations sparingly for greater impact. When you do choose to quote directly from ngohung3004.000webhostapp.com source, follow these guidelines: Make sure you have transcribed the original statement accurately.

Never use a stand-alone quotation. Always integrate the quoted material into your own sentence. Use ellipses … if you need to omit a word or phrase. Use brackets [ ] if you need to replace a word or phrase. Make how to write a rough draft for a research paper any omissions or changed words do not alter the how to write a rough draft for a research paper of the original text. Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence.

Remember to include correctly formatted citations that follow the assigned style guide.

Almost there…

Jorge interviewed a dietician as part of his research, and he decided to quote hellmice2.000webhostapp.com words in his paper. Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well.

Documenting Source Material Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources. The purpose of doing so is twofold: To give credit to other writers or researchers for their ideas To allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography.

12.1 Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper

For this assignment, you will use the citation format used by the American Psychological Association also known as APA style. Citing Sources in the Body of Your Paper In-text citations document your sources within the body of your paper. These include two vital pieces of information: When quoting a print source, also include in the citation the page number where the quoted material originally appears. The page number will follow the year in the in-text citation. Page numbers are necessary only when content has been directly quoted, not when it has been summarized or paraphrased.

Within a paragraph, this information may chungemcanbaove.000webhostapp.com as part of your introduction to the material or as a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence. Read the examples that follow. Summary Leibowitz found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels. Summary Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a how to write a rough draft for a research paper weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, The period at the end of the sentence comes after the parentheses.

Creating a List of References Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references list at the end of your paper. While in-text citations provide the most basic information about the source, your references section will include additional publication details. In general, you will include the following information: Using Primary and Secondary Research As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points.

Recall that primary sources present firsthand information. Secondary sources are one step removed from primary sources. How you balance an exciting day essay and secondary source material in your paper will depend on the topic and assignment.

Using Primary Sources Effectively Some types of research papers must use primary sources extensively to achieve their purpose.

Here are a few examples: A paper for a literature course analyzing several poems by Emily Dickinson A paper for a political science course comparing televised speeches delivered by two presidential candidates A paper for a communications course discussing gender biases in television commercials A paper for a business administration course that discusses the results of a survey the writer conducted with local businesses to gather information about their work-from-home and flextime policies A paper for an elementary education course that discusses the results of an experiment the writer conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different methods of mathematics instruction For these types of papers, primary research is the main focus.

And, of course, if you take the time to design and conduct your own field research, such as a survey, a how to write a rough draft for a research paper of interviews, or an experiment, you how to write a rough draft for a research paper want to discuss it in detail. For example, the interviews may provide interesting responses that you want to share with your reader. Using Secondary Sources Effectively For some assignments, it makes sense to rely how to write a rough draft for a research paper on how to write a rough draft for a research paper sources than primary sources.

If you are not analyzing a text or conducting your own field research, you will need to use secondary sources extensively. These sources are more reliable and add more value to your paper than sources that are further removed from primary research. For instance, a popular magazine article on junk-food addiction might be several steps removed from the original scientific study on which it is loosely based.

Even if your paper is largely based on primary sources, you may use secondary sources to develop your ideas.

A paper that presents an original experiment would include some discussion of similar prior research in the field. Jorge knew he did not have the time, resources, or experience needed to conduct original experimental research for his paper. Because he was relying on secondary sources to support his ideas, he made a point of citing sources that were not far removed from primary research.

creative writing ncca provide firsthand examples of the media coverage the writer is analyzing. It is crucial to always distinguish between the two—as you conduct research, as you plan your paper, and as you write.

Failure to do so can lead to plagiarism. Sometimes a writer plagiarizes work on purpose—for instance, by purchasing an essay from a website and submitting it as original course work. In other cases, a writer may commit accidental plagiarism due to carelessness, haste, or misunderstanding.

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